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Que. 1 What is a gemstone?
Any material of organic or inorganic origin having three essential properties of Beauty, Rarity and Durability (B, R & D) can be considered as a 'GEM'.

Que. 2 What is gemology?
As a branch of mineralogy 'Gemology' refers to the study of natural, Synthetic, composite, reconstructed as well as imitation gem materials.

Que. 3 What is a natural gemstone?
Any gemstone, completely manufacture by the nature (organic/inorganic origin) is known as natural gemstone.

Que. 4 What is a synthetic gemstone?
Any gemstone, completely or partially manufacture by human being is known as synthetic gemstone. The physical and chemical properties and/or their crystal structure essentially correspond to their natural occurring counterparts (natural gemstones).

Que. 5 What is an imitation stone?
Imitation stones are completely manufacture by human being. An imitation stone imitates the colour, phenomenal effect, and appearance of natural/synthetic/composite/reconstructed gemstone without possessing their physical and chemical properties and/or their crystal structure.

Que. 6 What is a composite stone?
Any gemstone, artificially manufacture by Composing/assembling of two or more natural gemstones/ synthetic gemstones/other minerals/any other material, known as a composite stone.

Que. 7 What is a reconstructed stone?
Any gem-material, artificially manufacture by melting/bonding/fusing of chips or waste of two or more natural gemstones/ synthetic gemstones/other minerals/any other material, known as a reconstructed stone.

Que. 8 What do you mean by phenomena and phenomenal gemstones?
Phenomena is an optical effect such as luster, sheen, chatoyancy, schiller, asterism, aventurescence, etc. It is a result of quantity & quality 0f reflection of light off and/or below the surface of the gemstone. Many times it increases the beauty of gemstones which can be seen in natural, synthetic, imitation, composite as well as in treated gemstones. There are a number of phenomenal gemstones, which are typically known as only because of their consisting phenomenal effect. E.g. Moonstone (sheen), Opal (play of colour), Sunstone (aventurescence), Star Ruby/Sapphire (asterism), etc.

Que. 9 What do you mean by treatment and enhancement?
Treatment and Enhancements are the trade practice which applied on a wide range as well as a wide grade of gem materials (natural/synthetic/Imitation/Composite/Reconstructed) to alter/improve/enhance their colour, luster, transparency, durability and/or phenomena and consequently their market value.

Que. 10 Define various types of treatments?
Treatments / enhancements applying in market are as follows:

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